Auto Parts Finder’s Guide in Buying Reliable Car Parts

Every auto parts finder should learn how to search for and purchase reliable, as well as cheap vehicle parts. This is very important since knowing where and how to search for parts ensures that the items purchased are capable of delivering the needed performance that they should provide.

In addition to this, parts finders should also learn to identify automotive part dealers that sell reliable vehicle components at affordable prices. By doing this, the parts finder would have the chance to save a lot of money instead of spending more than what is appropriate. In case you are currently in need of affordable and reliable car parts, just like the other auto parts finder, try to consider some of the useful tips provided in this article.  junkyards near me

1. Avoid buying auto parts from junk yards

One of the most common places that parts finder would look when they are in need of several parts for their vehicle, is to go some of the local junk yards and search for parts that are from vehicles brought to the yard for recycling purposes.

This is usually a practice for car owners who have a tight budget, since they would be able to haggle prices of the parts sold. Junk yard owners and operators are usually willing to offer lower prices and this is the reason why this practice has become popular.

However, this practice is not considered safe, since these car parts are stripped from vehicles that are subjected for disposal. This simply means that these parts are not that reliable and the chances of getting low performing as well as malfunctioning parts is high. Due to this, try to avoid buying auto parts from junk yards.

2. Search for auto parts using the internet

Using the Internet to purchase the parts for your car can be a good practice. This is because a lot of reputable sellers maintain their own websites to promote their products as well as to accommodate the needs of the online shopper.

In addition to this, you can easily search for the parts you need by using the internet. Most of the time, you only need to log into the website operated by these sellers and provide the information about the parts that you need such as the model and the exact make of the part that you want to buy.

The good thing is that you might find a website that allows you to choose parts that are in brand new, refurbished or those that are considered factory OEM (original equipment manufacturer). There are also a lot of sites that offer great discounts and facilitate manageable delivery options.

On top of this is that these sellers offer warranties to parts that they are selling and the customer services that they provide are usually impressive. However, you only need to verify that the site you are dealing with is legitimate. One of the best ways to do this is to check if the seller is a member of the Better Business Bureau (BBB).

3. Visit some of the local auto parts dealers in your area

You can also search for the needed parts by visiting some of the auto part dealers in your area. Try to ask an employee about the price of the OEM part. Take note of the price and then asking for its price as a refurbished part. Compare the price differences and try to decide which of the existing versions fit into your budget.

If your budget is not limited, you can go with the OEM part. If your budget for buying this part is limited, you can then opt for the refurbished version. A refurbished part is actually a version that is in good like new condition. The only reason why refurbished parts are cheaper compared to the OEM, is that the parts are returned by customers who previously bought the part and then for some reason decided to return it, not necessarily malfunctioning. Any needed repairs would be made to the part, repackaged and sold as refurbished. It’s basically like a new used part.


Still more Benefits With Online Slot Machines


Offline slot units are cool to play with if you want authenticity. Enjoying within a land based casino produces gambling much more real, and that tends to make all of the wins of yours more authentic too. You can enjoy with other gamblers in a real casino, which could allow you to be think that you share a little kind of kinship. Consequently understanding that brick and mortar slot equipment make much better gambling video games than their internet alternatives in addition to nothing can dissuade any punter to convey or else. Or thereabouts this specific author thought.

Slot machines in actual casinos have been the best game for punters right until internet slot devices emerged up, which absolutely blew away the land based competitors of theirs. Web-based poker units have increased percentages of winning as opposed to the land based ones. Poker devices in land-based casinos have approximately eighty % to eighty eight % chances of winning, that to your punter is drastically high already done so. Nevertheless for online pokies the proportion of theirs of winning is approximately 95 % to 98 %, which is a lot of even closer to a 100 %. It’s really close up that some men and women might feel this’s a hoax just to suggest that them to opt playing with online poker equipment. Fortunately, it’s not. All those percentages are very real and online pokies do pay much more than the land based counterparts of theirs. Here is why…

With all the introduction of the world wide web a great deal of web-based casinos began taking on the virtual plane to open up the doors of theirs to punters round the earth. Since they began appearing near the mid-1990s, virtually every month a brand new web based casino commences operations. Opening set up for companies on the web isn’t as hard as opening using Vegas or Atlantic City. Online-casino owners don’t have to work with a lot of individuals to drive their virtual gambling company they only need a handful of experts to watch the services of theirs along with one particular helluva application to run them. Online-casino proprietors don’t need to secure a dozen or perhaps much more files to get started on the operations of theirs, they solely must have a few to make them legitimate plus they’re ready to operate. Online-casino proprietors don’t need to lease a property just to establish a casino since the web is intangible and virtual purely, so no demand for creating permits as well as almost all that other things. And so the bottom line is, it’s not as difficult to establish a web based casino compared to a genuine body, which is why so many of them have started appearing as soon as the craze for these internet gambling venues came to life.

Now the reason are they much considerably better land-based casinos? Internet slot machines and casinos are much of better quality than land based ones since with extremely a lot of them appearing every month almost all them are attempting to outdo each other to attract brand new customers and also hold on to their old versions; and also the manner they outdo each other is by providing far more bonuses compared to the other on-line poker machines. Now that’s the reason why you need to be playing much more with web based slot devices than with land based slot games. With internet pokies you could own a 100 instances far more inside bonuses, offers as well as jackpots compared to offline pokies. Remember that almost all seem to be attempting to compete with one another since it is really easy to shift casinos online when compared with getting out a land based body along with for another. Therefore with which in brain, internet slot machines are truly more suitable deal compared to the land-based alternatives of theirs, and also in case you like larger payouts and much more additional bonuses than merely looking fantastic then this’s the game type you need to be actively playing.

How to Find Affiliate Products for Sale







1 Affiliate Product Reservoirs (Companies)

3.2 Clarification of Terms

3.3 0 The rules have changed

3.3.1 Know your Audience

3.3.2 Use the Product by Yourself

3.3.3 Promote Relevant Products

3.3.4 Promote Only 1-2 Products per Webpage

3.3.5 Can You Spy Your Audience?

3.3.6 Or Watch Your Competition? calphalon 2029626

  1. 4 How to Get ClickBank Product to Promote

3.5 Other Options for US and US non-residents





You have just finish setting up your squeeze page in the previous lesson, did you? Hopefully, you did just that. If not, please go back and figure that out because, on a serious note, this business begins from there!

The next question that you may ask is, what am I going to sell to those names and emails on my list? You have just sent them the gift they signed for, yes, but that is no business. Your work is to sell some digital products to them and make profits.

It is only when you can do this successfully and, and do that repeatedly, that you can call yourself a successful Internet Marketer, and that you will also be able to sustain your new business…

Now, relax, there is no cause for alarm.

My job here is to advice you on what to do next,

next, and

next, from the scratch to the


Let’s go…

Think for a while, you will remember, I talked about choosing your niche market and market research for marketable keywords in the previous courses – hope you can recall all of that (chapters 1, 2 and 3). One of the main tool that will make your business highly profitable is your KEYWORDS.

You will need them not only for the niche selection, market research, but also for selecting the products that you intends to sell profitably.


– To describe the job of an Affiliate Marketer

– To state some rules of Affiliate Marketing

– To narrate how to get Affiliate Products for promotion as an Affiliate Marketer.


3.1 Affiliate Product Reservoirs (Companies)

There are two ways to acquire the products that you intends to sell online, number one, is to get them from fellow marketers ( Merchants) while the second option, is to create the product by yourself. Both ways have their peculiar advantages as well as disadvantages.

Remember that our main focus now is on digital products. I will find time in a later chapter to talk briefly on how to sell Physical Products on the Internet.


Oklahoma City Thunder: The Genesis of the NBA’s Best Young Nucleus

After dismissing the Los Angeles Lakers from the playoffs on Monday, the Oklahoma City Thunder earned themselves a return trip to the Western Conference Finals. Losing to the Mavs in this same spot a year ago, OKC will have to go through another experienced outfit (the San Antonio Spurs) in order to take the next step in their development.

The NBA’s Western Conference (and to a large degree the NBA in general) has largely been dominated by three organizations since the late 1990’s – the Lakers, Spurs, and Mavs. The Lakers have won five titles since drafting Kobe Bryant in 1996, spearheaded by the Kobe/Shaq run in the early 2000’s and the Kobe/Pau duo of recent times. The Spurs lucked out by winning the Tim Duncan lottery sweepstakes in 1997, and since his arrival the organization has surrounded him with an outstanding coach (“Pop”) and perfect complimentary pieces, capturing four championships in the process. Mark Cuban purchased the Mavs in 2000 and has proceeded to spend piles and piles of money trying to find the right combination of players to surround Dirk Nowitzki with. After a decade’s worth of revolving pieces and epic playoff meltdowns, his Mavs finally captured that elusive title in 2011.

Oklahoma City has broken up this longstanding three way dance, putting the aforementioned teams on “blast” in the process. In a relatively short amount of time OKC GM Sam Presti has managed to build a roster of talented young players, the nucleus of which has the team primed to compete for titles for years to come. While the cores of the traditional Western Conference powers are getting up there in age, the Thunder’s four best players are all 23 years old or younger. How did Presti pull this off? A few factors have played a part in the team’s rapid ascension, namely luck in the draft, outstanding player evaluation and development, and shrewd trades.

Back in 2007, the Seattle SuperSonics were still an entity (a year away from relocating to Oklahoma) and waiting to see who the Portland Trail Blazers were going to take with the top pick in that year’s draft. Greg Oden and Kevin Durant were expected to be the first two players selected, and in keeping with their history of poor decisions and bad luck, Portland elected to go with the fragile Oden. The fortunes of both franchises were forever altered by this move, as it has turned out to be a modern day Bowie over of Jordan type of decision. In Durant, OKC is not only blessed with one the league’s best players, but a superstar teammate straight out of the Tim Duncan school of low maintenance. Oden has suffered through a multitude of knee injuries, competing in only one season’s worth of games during the span of his five year NBA career. Would basketball have taken off in OKC to the degree that it has if Portland had taken Durant instead? Would Portland be on the cusp of winning titles if they had gone the other way? Both questions for a future column.

The 2008 NBA Draft proved to be especially rewarding for the Thunder, snagging Russell Westbrook with the 4th pick and Serge Ibaka with the 24th overall pick. The two players selected immediately before Westbrook, Michael Beasley and O.J. Mayo, have had disappointing careers in comparison to the explosive Westbrook. Already one of the league’s top point guards, Westbrook attacks the rim with the ferocity of a mini LeBron James and is the engine that runs the Thunder’s up-tempo offense. Still shoots a little too often for Skip Bayless’s liking, but when Westbrook gets it rolling he is an absolute nightmare for opposing teams to contend with. Ibaka came to the Thunder after playing a few years in Spain, and in just his third NBA season led the league in blocks per game. Still only 22 years old, Ibaka is a raw talent that is improving at an alarming rate – this season mixing in an improved mid-range jumper to go with his innate athleticism. He was definitely an off the grid find by the OKC front office.

Filling out OKC’s version of the “Big 3” along with Durant and Westbrook is James Harden. The 3rd overall pick in the 2009 NBA Draft, Harden fell into the Thunder’s lap thanks to the one of the biggest draft day blunders of all-time – the selection of Hasheem Thabeet with the 2nd pick by the Memphis Grizzlies. Just how bad was this pick? In his three seasons in the league Thabeet has been traded twice and played for three different teams (Grizz, Rockets, and you guessed it, the Blazers), making pit stops in the D-League during portions of two of these seasons. While Harden has been league ready and OKC’s version of Manu Ginobli for most of his three campaigns, Thabeet was busy earning himself the dubious distinction of being the highest drafted player ever optioned to the NBA’s Developmental League. The current Sixth Man of the Year, Harden is a dynamic scorer who can drive at will or bury teams from the outside. He is the primary ball handler and facilitator of OKC’s second unit, and there is little to no drop-off when he is out on the floor and either Durant or Westbrook takes a seat on the bench. His Game 4 destruction of the Mavs in the first round was incredible to watch, practically erasing a double-digit deficit on his own in leading the Thunder to the come from behind win. It was very reminiscent of a younger Kobe/D-Wade type of performance. Most great teams need a little luck in getting all the right pieces in place, and OKC landing Harden is definitely in Andy Roddick/Brooklyn Decker territory.

Presti and the front office have also done a superb job of bringing in a mix of veteran players to add leadership and toughness to this burgeoning team. Derek Fisher might have lost a step, but can still hit the occasional big shot and is a respected voice in the locker room. Kendrick Perkins creates the kind of space/openings for the team’s playmakers with his screens that NFL coaches are probably seeking his services. And Thabo Sefolosha is a premier defender on the wing who will play an important role in the team’s upcoming playoff matchups guarding the likes of Manu and either D-Wade or Ray Allen.


All About Casino Gambling Online

A perfect amalgamation of the Internet and casino games, today casino gambling online is the most preferred mode of playing and gambling used by many people. Though many people like the adrenaline rush when they play with their stakes at the elite Los Vegas casinos, but a visit to those expensive casinos is not a practical solution. Imagine yourself on a blissful holiday cruise; you sure are not going to travel all the way to your favorite Los Vegas casino. Even a drive to nearby casinos is time consuming. That’s where casino gambling online comes to satiate your gambling desire. Through casino gambling online, all the fun, excitement is available at your doorstep. 토토사이트

Over the last few years, there has been an extraordinary increase of online gamblers which resulted into many sites offering casino gambling online. Today this online casino gaming is a billion dollar industry with players from all over the world. There are three types of online casino gaming sites. First one is web based where players needn’t have to download any software onto their computer to enjoy an online casino game. They just need to register with the casino gambling online site. When they click on any particular online casino game, it would be loaded via the browser in either Flash, or Java, depending on the programs and browser. It mode is one of the most popular choices among online gamblers.

The second type is downloadable casino gambling online where players are required to download relevant software programs onto their own computers before they start with their games. Many players prefer this as online casino games becomes a lot faster after all the required files are downloaded to local computers. The latest type of online casino game is the LIVE casino where online players get to interact and even bet with the dealers of a real LIVE casino.

With so many new casino gambling online sites coming up everyday, it’s really tough to distinguish the genuine ones from that of the fraudulent online casinos. But you can look into a few aspects while choosing a good casino gambling online site. Check out the payout percentages and bonuses that the site offers. Some of the best casinos offer a payout percentage ranging from 97% – 98%. The bonus could also vary from $200 to $3200. Many online casino gaming sites also offer No-deposit bonuses where players needn’t have to deposit anything into their account and can start with the free money offered by the online casino gaming sites. This business gimmick is of a limited trial period to attract the players into the casino gambling online sites.


How to Use Engine Sensors For Best MPG – Engine, Engine, How Do I See Thee? Let Me Count the Ways

Engines are complex machines are controlled by a computer called the ECU or Engine Control Unit. This little baby is the brains of the car. But even the ECU is deaf and dumb unless it has the proper input. Sensors provide the input to the ECU. used engines

This article is about these sensors. The ECU is further subdivided into different functions but for this article suffice to say that it makes the decisions based on sensor input.

There’s a plethora of sensor suites in a car that track a host of functions. A car’s ECU controls “ignition timing, fuel delivery, emission controls, transmission shifting, cruise control, engine torque reduction (if the vehicle has antilock brakes with traction control) and charging output of the alternator.”

To be more specific, here are some of the more important sensors for the ECU:

Coolant Sensor. The ECU monitors the temperature of the coolant so it can determine it can switch its mode into a “closed loop feedback fuel control” after startup. After startup, the engine is usually cold and designers left the engine in open loop mode until it the ECU determines it reaches the right operating temperature to switch to closed loop.

During open loop, the engine is not being very efficient and gas is wasted because the mix is too rich uncontrolled. Damaged coolant sensors will also cause this.

Oxygen (O2) Sensor. O2 Sensors are usually located near the exhaust manifold of most cars. There can be about 1 to as much as 4 O2 sensors in cars. The role of the O2 sensor is to measure the amount of unburned oxygen in the exhaust. They do this by comparing the temperature inside the exhaust pipe to that of the outside atmosphere. This sends a signal to the ECU to adjust the air-fuel mix and timing accordingly.

Damaged O2 sensors will also cause the ECU to deliver an air-fuel mix that is too rich for the engine.

Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensor. MAP sensors are located near the intake manifold to measure engine load or the intake vacuum.

When vacuum occurs, the engine is usually on idle and the ECU will shift the timing and fuel ratio accordingly. When the car is running, the engine is taking in more air, which signals the ECU to enrich the mixture for more power. Vacuum is still present but is variable when the engine is in operation.

Mass Air Flow (MAF) Sensor. The MAF sensor detects the volume of air entering the engine. It’s vital element is usually a heated filament that is put against incoming air in the tube to measure airflow and density. Changes in temperature sends a signal to the ECU to respond to the needs of the engine accordingly.

Throttle Position Sensor (TPS). The TPS monitors the throttle position which accordingly measures the engine’s load, acceleration, deceleration, idle or wide open. The ECU utilizes this data to determine the air-fuel ratio adjustments.

Crankshaft Position Sensor (CPS). The CPs is used to determine the position of the crankshaft and number 1 cylinder. This specifically is used to control the timing of ignition and the injection of fuel. This can also measure the RPM (revolutions per minute).

Failure of the CPS will render the car inoperable.

The Effect of 3Rd Party Mods

Manufacturers usually would warn against 3rd party modifications to the engine or electronics. Despite this a large industry has sprung up to take advantage of some shortcomings of standard production vehicles.

One area of 3rd party modification involves improving the air-fuel mixture with other substances. More specifically hydrogen.

Hydrogen is a gaseous substance that is combustible. The benefits of the introduction of hydrogen to internal combustion is that:

-Engines become more quieter, knocking and pinging is reduced -Emissions give off a cleaner burn -Hydrogen when burned turns to water vapor out the tailpipe -Hydrogen raises the octane level of gasoline, encouraging combustion at the piston’s top dead center -Less fuel is used when mixed with hydrogen, giving better fuel economy. -The engine is cooled which promotes better performance

Things to consider:

Introduction of hydrogen to a regular internal combustion engine will in time influence the ECU to enrich the mixture further. This is due to the O2 sensor detecting more oxygen in the exhaust.

The ECU is programmed from the factory to maintain a “stochiometric” or air-fuel mixture of about 14.7 parts oxygen to 1 part fuel. Even if the engine is performing better at a leaner mixture, it is only capable of following its programming.

The ECU will then pump more fuel into the mixture to meet the 14.7:1 ratio, ruining performance.

There is still hope!

Fortunately, the problem with the ECU can be addressed. The introduction of a controller to the ECU’s sensors can nudge the ECU to accept a leaner fuel mix with no need for expensive modifications:

These are by far the most easily modifiable with the least cost between $20 to over $100 USD.

Are these safe?

Hydrogen systems have been tried and tested by dozens of alternate fuel enthusiasts for years and they attest to the safety of both systems.

Several hydrogen generation systems have already been developed to deliver hydrogen-as-needed-only. When the engine is off, the danger of hydrogen sparks is nil because the process to create hydrogen is by electricity in a water medium. No electricity, no hydrogen.

As an alternate fuel enhancement, hydrogen technology has matured and delivers the best value in terms of return on investment over other more expensive enhancement systems.

For more detailed information on increasing engine performance, fuel efficiency without the need for a mechanic or a degree in engineering, please visit the URL below.

Erwin Chua MCP, MCDST is a HUMAN BEING posing as a WEB MARKETER. In his youth, he’s read the entire World Book Encyclopedia and World Book Dictionaries from A-Z out of a passion to know things and share his knowledge with others. Things that fascinate him most include: the HUMAN CONDITION and its PASSION TO IMPROVE, TECHNOLOGY that make things easy, SYSTEMS that make things easy, and HELPING OTHERS escape the RAT RACE through online marketing. He has a still-pending MA in Philosophy from DLSU-Manila after he decided to leave the academe in pursuit of a career in web marketing. He is based in Penang, Malaysia spending his online and offline activities pursuing his passion in equipping others with tools and mindset to be spiritually and financially free.


How to Compare Lottery Strategies

When it comes to improving your chances of winning the lottery, there are really only two things you can do.

1. Buy more tickets.

2. Improve your odds of winning.

For example, if the odds of winning the lottery jackpot are 1:2,500,000, you can improve your chances of winning to 1:100,000 if you buy 25 wagers. But, for those of us who would prefer to use our brain rather than our money, we use a lottery software program to improve our chances of winning the lottery jackpot before we spend money on wagers. satta

Obviously, method #2 is preferable because it allows you to stretch your lottery budget while maintaining similar coverage of all possible wagers. In other words, if you can improve your odds of winning to 1:100,000 using various lottery number analysis techniques, then you only have to buy 1 wager to have the same odds. So, if you’re a serious lottery player, purchasing a good lottery software program is a no-brainer. It pays for itself in a couple of weeks.

An intelligent lottery player tries to cover as many of the possible winning wagers as possible. I call this your Lottery Footprint or LFP. Environmentalists use a similar term, Carbon Footprint, to describe the effect each of us has on global warming. However, the environmentalists want a small Carbon Footprint and serious lottery players want a large Lottery Footprint. The larger the LFP the better your chances of winning are.

I’ve created a simple formula for LFP that we can use to compare different lottery strategies. It incorporates both approaches mentioned above. Here’s the formula.

LFP = tickets purchased /# of possible wagers in Millions

Since we would like to control our budget, we will try to keep the numerator small. So, we’ll concentrate on reducing the size of the denominator; the number of possible wagers. In this article we’ll use the Massachusetts Cash WinFall, 6/46 lottery.

Everybody playing the MA646 lottery starts out with 9,366,819 possible wagers from which to choose. For the purposes of using the LFP, we will use 9.366819 in the formula. If the player buys 1 wager:

LFP = 1/9.366819 = 0.107

The easy way to improve our coverage of the MA646 lottery, increase our LFP, would be buy more wagers. For example, buying 25 wagers results in an LFP of 2.67; indicating that our coverage has improved.

But, how does the serious lottery player reduce the number of possible wagers? Simple. It’s called a reduced Play List. Unlike everyone else in Massachusetts who is playing a 6 out of 46 game, our guy is playing a different game. Lets’ suppose that by using his lottery software program to analyze the lottery, he is convinced that the number 38 will not hit in the next drawing. He will not play any wager that has the number 38.

I know, you’re thinking, ‘No big deal.’ and are about to stop reading. BUT, WAIT! It is a big deal. This simple act of removing 1 number from play has removed 1,221,759 wagers from play! That’s over a MILLION wagers. You see, while everyone else in Massachusetts is playing a 6/46 lottery, our guy is playing a 6/45 game. His odds of winning the lottery jackpot are now 1:8,145,060. This is reflected in a 15% improvement in the LFP.

LFP = 25/8.14506 = 3.07

But, why stop there. Serious lottery players, that follow my lottery strategies, will apply what I call the 80% rule. They will create a Play List that has 36 numbers (80% of 46). The odds of winning a 6/36 lottery are 1:1,947,792 and out LFP is 12.84. That’s a phenomenal 380% improvement in LFP.

LFP = 25/1.947792 = 12.84

Now, the more numbers we remove, the greater are the chance of removing one of the winning numbers. But, we counter this with lottery trend analysis techniques. In other words, we do a good job of selecting the numbers to include in our list. I’ll freely admit that it doesn’t work every time, but over the long haul, an experienced player will do much better.

Just one more point, before I send you off to buy a good lottery software program. I wonder how much money the average Massachusetts player would have to spend to achieve the same LFP that our Serious Lottery Player did? Well, we just use the LFP formula in reverse.

$ spent = 12.84 x 9.366819 = $120

There are many more things that a Serious Lottery Player can do to increase his LFP even further, but I’ll save those for the next thousand articles.

Good luck and I hope You Win the Big One.


Psychology and Philosophy – Uneasy Siblings

Most of us who work in some aspect of philosophy have had the experience of trying to explain to someone that philosophy is not psychology. To those members of the philosophical set, the distinction may seem obvious, but any attempt to spell it out requires some careful thought and reflection, which is what I attempt to do in this exercise. Psicóloga Curitiba

Is Psychology a sibling of Philosophy? Surely in the past they were close siblings, members of the same family, philosophy. Today the relationship between the two is more problematic. Does work in philosophy have any relation to the student’s psychological state? The answer also is not a clear-cut one. Philosophy can help a person psychologically, but this is not central to the function of philosophy.

Some History:

Historically in Western Philosophy, Psychology was part of philosophy until the 19th century when it became a separate science. In the 17th and 18th centuries, many Western philosophers did pioneering work in areas that later came to be known as “psychology.” Eventually psychological inquiry and research became separate sciences some of which could be characterized as the study and research into the mind. In short, psychology became identified as the science of mind insofar as its function is to analyze and explain mental processes: our thoughts, experiences, sensations, feelings, perceptions, imaginations, creativity, dreams and so on. It is mostly an empirical and experimental science; although the field of psychology does include the more theoretical Freudian psychology and the more speculative Jungian psychology.

When we study Western Philosophy, we find a concentrated effort to maintain a distinction between philosophical and psychological considerations. But these have not always been kept separate. Even today some areas of philosophy remain intermixed with psychological considerations. It may be that some forms of philosophy can never break away completely from psychological issues.
Traditionally, philosophers in the Western tradition did not always observe a wall of separation between philosophy and psychology. For example, Baruch Spinoza’s great work, Ethics, includes many observations and insights about our reasoning processes and emotions. The early works in Epistemology (theory of knowledge) by such thinkers as Rene Descartes, John Locke, David Hume, and Immanuel Kant include a great deal of observations and statements about mental processes connected with knowing and belief. In other words, these writings tend to mix psychological statements (process of knowing) with conceptual philosophy.

But there are differences between psychology and philosophy which are significant and should be observed in careful writing in either area. In our critiques of these 17th and 18th works in epistemology, we try to separate the philosophical theme (logic, conceptual and propositional evaluation) from the psychological aspect (causes of belief, mental process underlying perception). Scientific work that seeks to understand and explain the workings of the brain and the neurological processes which underlie thought and experience (viz., psychology) is different from philosophical inquiry into mind, consciousness, knowledge and experiences. Edmund Husserl, the founder of phenomenology, takes great pains to keep his philosophy separate from empirical psychology. But it is not clear that his analysis (or other analyses) of the phenomenology of different experiences remains something clearly distinct from psychology.

But in large part the problem remains, especially in such areas of philosophy of mind, of keeping philosophical work free of psychology altogether. Moreover, we should not assume that in all cases these must be kept separate, as some work in philosophy surely requires consideration of the psychological sciences.

Even today the student will likely be surprised by the number of psychological insights that Spinoza offers in this great work, Ethics, back in the 17th century and similar psychological observations by Friedrich Nietzsche in the 19th century. William James, the great American pragmatist, includes much psychology in his philosophy. He has much to say about the stream of consciousness and special experiences, such as religious experiences.

Current Concerns:

Philosophy of mind: There is a sense in which the mind is a psychological construct; there’s another sense in which it is not. “My mind is such and such” can be restated as “my thinking is such and such.” Sometimes it is the psychology behind my thinking that is the issue; but other times we’re interested in what could be called the conceptual-propositional issues; and still other times we might be more interested in the literary-artistic expression of ideas, values, and perspectives. (In this latter connection, see Walter Kaufmann’s book, Discovering The Mind.)

In Epistemology we’re concerned with the concept of knowledge; but our primary interest is not one of describing the psychology of knowing. Our interest is not in the process by which we come to know something, but in the clarification of concepts associated with knowledge and belief; and in the logic of propositions related to knowledge. Included among the philosophers who engage in the philosophy of knowledge are Bertrand Russell, D.W. Hamlyn, and Richard Rorty.

In the area of academic philosophy, besides the large field of epistemology, we have philosophy of mind, theory of consciousness, philosophy of language, Cartesian Idealism, and the free will issue. Ordinarily these are not seen as forms of psychological inquiry. They are more directed to conceptual and propositional issues. Included among the philosophers who engage in work on knowledge, language, and mind in this vein are Ludwig Wittgenstein, Gilbert Ryle, D.W. Hamlyn, John Austin, and Daniel Dennett

But psychology is very much a part of those philosophical studies of special experience, such as the religious experience, the mystical experience, and even moral experience. A good representative of this approach is the great American pragmatist, William James. Much of his work in philosophy does not stray too far from his psychological interests.

Some aspects of philosophy are concerned with the nature of human thought. This interest is distinct from psychological study, description and theory. But to be adequate and credible it needs to take into account the work of psychologists and the cognitive scientists. The subject of human thought is a big topic which can be approached from different directions. One of these is philosophy; another is psychology and the cognitive sciences. Still others are literary art, the fine arts, and history.

Suppose I ask about Spinoza’s thought with regard to moral obligation; how does he defend the thesis that morality and rationality are closely intertwined? As a student of philosophy, my interests could be strictly philosophical interests. I want to know how he develops and defends his philosophical thesis. On the other hand, I could be curious about the causes of Spinoza’s thinking; or maybe interested in possible motives that he might have had for adopting his particular philosophy. What events in his childhood or family life led him to embrace the values of rationality and the ideals of the geometric method? In this latter case, I would be proceeding as an amateur, folk psychologist.

There are different ways of trying to understand the thought of a person, e.g. a writer or a philosopher. We take one way when we ask about the causes and motivations behind the person’s ideas; i.e., we ask about the psychological ‘workings.’ Another way is to do philosophical criticism and evaluation of the person’s ideas. But the two (psychology and philosophy) can be combined in a single study.

Philosophy and the psychological well-being of the individual:

Another way of considering the interaction of psychology and philosophy is at the personal level. Do a person’s meditation on philosophical questions bring about (or bring closer) some degree of psychic harmony? To the extent that philosophical work and thought contribute to a person’s sense of well-being and fulfillment, one could argue that philosophy is a form of therapy. Is there a sense in which philosophy can be therapeutic?

If the unexamined life is not worth living (Socrates), then it may follow that the examined life (the “philosophical life”) is worth living. This could be seen as suggesting that philosophical thought results in a form of personal fulfillment and good psychological health.

Contrary to this we have the view (mostly the prevailing view) that philosophy is an intellectual discipline which has little or nothing to do with anyone’s striving to achieve some form of personal, psychic fulfillment. Add to this the fact that most people who work in philosophy (e.g. academic philosophers or professors of philosophy) are not especially noteworthy for lives of psychic well-being. In this regard, think of people like Blaise Pascal, S. Kierkegaard, F. Nietzsche and Ludwig Wittgenstein. How psychologically healthy and well balanced were they? They were emotionally and mentally tormented, and won’t be mentioned much as models of psychic calm and well-being. Moreover, some philosophers are driven to engage in philosophy, much like artists, poets, and composers are driven to do their creative work. Here we have a form of psychological compulsion that does not seem to be a form of therapy. In fact, some people even refer to philosophy as a type of disease.

Closing Thoughts:

The student of philosophy usually is not a psychologist, but nothing says that the student cannot proceed as a psychologist of sorts. I imagine situations in we attempt to get clear about our thoughts and values; and attempt to be honest about our motivations for all that we do. People used to say back in the 1960s era: I’m just trying to get my “head straight.”

Suppose that a psychologist can tell me about the causes, the mental processes, and hidden motives that underlie my thinking and behavior. He might say that in order to truly understand what I am about I must have some understanding of these “psychological” things; i.e., I must acknowledge and expose them. If I were to accept his advice and try to do those things, would I be acting in accordance with the Socratic maxim to “know thyself”?

The professional is concerned with empirical, descriptive psychology and with research into neurological and psychological processes. But we, the amateurs, are primarily indulging a form of folk psychology: Trying to say what I think about my own thinking. Or trying to deal better with my psychic life. Sometimes I apply this ‘folk psychology’ to myself (I try to figure out what I’m about) or to others (I try to understand their motives for saying such and such or doing so and so.)

On a more practical level, we can imagine someone asking: “What do I really want in life? How do I get there?” Can philosophy help us here? Maybe not, but then again think of two of our great figures in Western Philosophy, Socrates and Spinoza. They are often cited as models of psychological harmony and wisdom. Ultimately, aren’t we all psychologists to some degree, even those of us who flounder about in philosophy? Yes, we are to some degree ‘psychologists’ insofar as we are awake, alert, conscientious, and honestly engage in self-examination. This does not need to be kept separate from our work in philosophy.


Wedding Transport and Hire Cars – Four Stylish Options

Deciding on a wedding car to take the bride to the service and convey the bridal couple away from the ceremony can take a while. Unless you are lucky enough to have a collector of vintage cars in the family or the groom already owns a stylish sports car, hiring your wedding transport is the usual option.

Depending on your budget you can decide on wedding car hire for the whole wedding retinue, or just hiring one vehicle for each stage of the wedding: a car to transport the bride and bridesmaids to the ceremony, one to transport the bride and groom from ceremony to the wedding reception venue and one for the bride and groom to ‘go away’ in after the reception.

wedding cars

So what are the options for modern bridal couples looking for stylish wedding transport?

1. Chauffeur driven limousine
This is a conventional but very practical option. Limousines are spacious with plenty of room for bride and bridesmaids to stretch out without crushing trains and dresses. Wedding car services often offer little extras as part of the package, such as chilled champagne waiting for the bride and groom after the ceremony as they are transported to the reception. To make it more affordable find out the best value deals from your local limousine services. It could be cheapest just to have the limo drop the bride at the ceremony and not wait around, or there could be special wedding packages that make it worthwhile to use the same limo for transport to the reception after the ceremony.

2. Vintage Car
There are specialist hire car services that provide vintage cars especially for weddings and special occasions. Drive up to your wedding in a Rolls Royce or a Bentley for some classic, timeless style. Depending on the car service they can be hired as self-drive or with a chauffeur. If you go the self-drive route, appoint a member of the family as chauffeur for the day and use the car for all the various wedding transports: taking the bride to the ceremony, the bride and groom to the reception and then the groom can carry off his bride in it after the reception, all for the cost of one day’s car hire.

3. Sports Car
The groom might have set his heart on driving away from the wedding in something sexy and speedy, in which case hiring a sports car for the day is the ideal solution. Look for a local specialist hire car service that includes top end models of a range of sports cars. If you plan to use it as wedding transport between the ceremony and the reception, just make sure that there will be room for the wedding dress without it getting uncomfortably crumpled.

4. Horse and carriage
Perhaps you are the romantic old-fashioned types and would like a horse-drawn carriage for your wedding transport. Remember that there is less room in a horse-drawn carriage than in a limo, so if you have several bridesmaids you will have to find separate transport for them to the ceremony. Before hiring, you should also discuss whether the wedding venue is suitable for horses, both with the venue itself and with the carriage hire service.

Combine any of the wedding transport options above: perhaps the bride would like to arrive in a limo with her bridesmaids, the bridal couple could then drive to the reception in style in a Bentley and then whisk away in a smart sports car after the reception. Decide on your budget for wedding transportation, research the best options in your local area and then see which options fit within your budget.


Get Business Cash Advance Loans Immediately

Getting a business cash advance is simple and easy for most small businesses, and even those who have poor credit scores. While this does not apply to bank loans, these are the requirements of private lenders, and private lenders are amongst the leading funders at this time. ZenBusiness

Most business owners who are looking for funding and are unaware of the current requirements and developments of the financial sector, visit their local bank. This is the way people believe a loan is to be obtained, via the bank. However, banks are not very enthusiastic about funding small business, and as a result a whole new industry has cropped up to meet the demand.

Private lenders often fill the gap between businesses and banks. There is the very large segment of small businesses that are stuck in the middle, who don’t qualify for bank loans and yet require financing. Private lenders fill this gap providing many of them with the much required business cash advance in the USA.

The services provided by private lenders

The funding that private lenders provide is typically known as MCA or merchant cash advance loans. These kinds of loans are short term loans that are for a maximum duration of 12 months. The repayment options are easy and flexible, and small business owners can work with the funder to set the method that most suits their requirements.

The application process to apply for a business cash advance is simple and quick, with the private funder generally requiring basic information, and a lot less than those of banks. The basic information required by private lenders to provide an MCA are as mentioned here.

1. How old the business is

2. The gross monthly sale of the business

3. How much they require

4. Purpose of the funds i.e. working capital, business expansion, purchasing inventory, purchasing equipment etc.

5. If the business owner has other loans and if he or she is in bankruptcy.

These are some of the basic types of questions that a small business owner who is applying for an MCA would need to answer. The outstanding difference between an application for an MCA and bank loans is the fact that banks require detailed information related to financial statements. Private lenders basically need a broad picture of the ground realities of the business applying for the loan. Unlike banks all decisions are not based on the statements of the small business.

While banks and private lenders may have a different way of looking at things, private lenders do take care to ensure the ground realities of the small business are as they should be. Banks rely heavily on financial statements when reaching a conclusion related to funding a business.

Features of the MCA loan application process

While it is possible that you will be asked about your credit score even when you are going to apply for private funding. The credit score is not a determining factor for an MCA. These loans are unsecured loans and as a result collateral and security are not required as well.

When credit scores, collateral and securities are not holding back small businesses, the possibility of getting funded is a lot higher. These are the basic weak areas of most small businesses, which hamper their ability to get funded by in large. When these weak areas are removed from between a small business owner and the funding they seek, the process becomes a lot smoother for them.

Collateral is something that most small business owners find difficult to show. Typically, only with a private lender can a small business owner expect to receive a business cash advance with bad credit.

Another great feature is the fact that small business owners can receive the funding they require very quickly as well. The quickest a business owner can receive the money in their business account is 48 to 72 hours, from the time they submit a complete application. At the latest this time frame would be a week or two. Banks on the other hand are in no particular hurry to provide business funding, and a realistic time frame would be a couple of months to receive the money.